(AM-306: dp. 850; 1. 184'6~; b. 33'; dr. 9'9"; s. 14.8
k.; cpl. 104; a. 1 3, 4 40mm.; cl. Admirable)
Specter (AM-306) (ax-Spector) was laid down on 5 September 1943 by Associated Shipbuilders, Seattle, Wash.; launched on 15 February 1944; sponsored by Miss Carol D. Petrie; and commissioned on 30 August 1944, Lt. J. Chevalier, USNR, in command.
Specter departed Seattle on 16 September en route to San Pedro, Calif. She conducted shakedown training off San Pedro and San Diego from 21 September to 19 October. The minesweeper sailed from San Pedro on 9 November for Hawaii and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 18 November 1944. Following training in gunnery, antisubmarine warfare, and minesweeping operations, she sailed on 22 January 1945 for the Volcano Islands.
After stops at Eniwetok and Tinian, Specter arrived at Iwo Jima on 16 February three days before the landing and began minesweeping operations. She was busy clearing minefields, patrolling, and performing escort duty until 28 February when she sailed for Saipan. After a stop at Ulithi from 6 to 19 March, Specter steamed to Okinawa. On arrival there on 25 March' she commenced pre-invasion minesweeping operations of sea lanes and channels. The ship remained in the Okinawa area until 6 August. During this period, she conducted antisubmarine patrols, swept mines off Okinawa and Iheya Shima, and made two open-sea sweeps in the East China Sea. While on patrol off Ie Shima on 25 May, she shot down a Japanese fighter plane.
Specter was in Leyte Gulf from 9 to 27 August. She sailed for Japan on 28 August and, after touching at Buckner Bay, Okinawa, arrived in Japanese home waters on 9 September. During the next three months, she swept mines at Nagasaki, Sasebo, Bungo Suido and Tsushima. On 11 December 1945, Specter was ordered home; she arrived at San Diego on 11 January 1946; and was routed onward to Orange, Tex., where she was placed in reserve, out of commission.
Specter was redesignated from AM-306 to MSF-306 on 7 February 1955 while in reserve. She was struck from the Navy list on 1 July 1972 and sold to Mexico on 11 April 1973. She serves that country as DM-04 (ID-04).
Specter received four battle stars for World War II service.
ยูเอสส เปคเตอร์ (AM-306)
ยูเอส อสุรกาย (AM-306) เป็น ที่น่าชื่นชม -class เรือกวาดทุ่นระเบิด สร้างขึ้นสำหรับ กองทัพเรือสหรัฐฯ ในช่วง สงครามโลกครั้งที่สอง เดิมทีเธอได้รับคำสั่งให้ วาง และ เปิดตัว ในฐานะ USS Spector (AM-306) แต่ถูกเปลี่ยนชื่อเป็น Spectre ที่ สะกดถูกต้อง ในเดือนมีนาคม พ.ศ. 2487 เธอได้รับรางวัลสี่ ดาวรบ สำหรับการให้บริการในแปซิฟิกในช่วงสงครามโลกครั้งที่สอง เธอถูกปลดประจำการในปีพ. ศ. 2489 และถูกจองจำ ในขณะที่เธอยังคงอยู่ในกองหนุน Spectre ถูกจัดประเภทใหม่เป็น MSF-306 ในเดือนกุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2498 แต่ไม่เคยเปิดใช้งานอีกครั้ง ในเดือนเมษายนปี 1973 เธอถูกขายให้กับ กองทัพเรือเม็กซิกัน และเปลี่ยนชื่อเป็น ARM DM-04 ในปี 1994 เธอได้รับการเปลี่ยนชื่อ ARM ทั่วไปมานูเอลอีRincón (C52) เธอถูกครอบงำในเดือนกรกฎาคมปี 2001 แต่เธอชะตากรรมไม่ได้รายงานใน แหล่งข้อมูลทุติยภูมิ
- 2 × Cooper Bessemer GSB-8 เครื่องยนต์ดีเซล 1,710 แรงม้า (1,280 กิโลวัตต์ )
- National Supply Co. เกียร์ทดเดียว
- 2 เพลา
- ปืน DPขนาด 1 × 3 "/ 50 (76 มม.)
- 2 ×แฝด Bofors 40 มิลลิเมตร ปืน
- ปูนป้องกันเรือดำน้ำ 1 × Hedgehog
- 2 × แทร็กการ ชาร์จความลึก
- (พ.ศ. 2487-2489) (2489–2515) (1973–2001)
ชื่อแรก สเปคเตอร์ , เรือถูกวางลงบนที่ 5 กันยายน 1943 โดย ที่เกี่ยวข้องโฟโต้ชอป , ซีแอตเติล, วอชิงตัน เปิดตัวเมื่อวันที่ 15 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2487 โดยได้รับการสนับสนุนจากมิสแครอลดีเพทรีและรับหน้าที่เมื่อวันที่ 30 สิงหาคม พ.ศ. 2487 ร.ท. เจ. เชอวาลิ เยร์ USNR ผู้บังคับบัญชา อสุรกาย ออกซีแอตเติที่ 16 กันยายนเส้นทางที่จะไป ซานเปโดรแคลิฟอร์เนีย เธอทำการ ฝึกอบรมแบบ ปอกเปลือก นอกเมืองซานเปโดรและ ซานดิเอโกแคลิฟอร์เนีย ตั้งแต่วันที่ 21 กันยายนถึง 19 ตุลาคม เรือกวาดทุ่นระเบิดแล่นเรือออกจากซานเปโดรในวันที่ 9 พฤศจิกายน ฮาวาย และมาถึงที่ อ่าวเพิร์ล ที่ 18 พฤศจิกายน 1944 หลังจากการฝึกอบรมในการยิงปืนสงครามเรือดำน้ำและกวาดทุ่นระเบิดการดำเนินงานของเธอแล่นเรือต่อไป 22 มกราคม 1945 สำหรับ หมู่เกาะภูเขาไฟ
หลังจากหยุดที่ Eniwetok และ Tinian แล้ว Spectre ก็มาถึง Iwo Jima ในวันที่ 16 กุมภาพันธ์สามวันก่อนที่จะขึ้นฝั่งและเริ่มปฏิบัติการกวาดทุ่นระเบิด เธอเป็นคนที่อ่อนไหวหักบัญชียุ่งลาดตระเวนและการปฏิบัติหน้าที่คุ้มกันจนถึงวันที่ 28 กุมภาพันธ์เธอเดินทางไป ไซปัน หลังจากหยุดที่ Ulithi 6-19 เดือนมีนาคม อสุรกาย นึ่ง โอกินาว่า เมื่อมาถึงที่นั่นในวันที่ 25 มีนาคมเธอเริ่ม ปฏิบัติการ กวาดทุ่นระเบิด ก่อนการบุกรุก ทางทะเลและช่องทาง เรือลำดังกล่าวยังคงอยู่ใน พื้นที่ โอกินาวา จนถึงวันที่ 6 สิงหาคม ในช่วงเวลานี้เธอดำเนินการ ดำน้ำ ลาดตระเวนกวาดเหมืองปิด โอกินาวา และ Iheya ชิมะ และทำให้ทั้งสองเรตติ้งเปิดน้ำทะเลใน ทะเลจีนตะวันออก ขณะออกลาดตระเวน อิเอะชิมะ เมื่อวันที่ 25 พฤษภาคมเธอได้ยิงเครื่องบินรบของญี่ปุ่นตก
Spectre อยู่ใน Leyte Gulf ตั้งแต่วันที่ 9 ถึง 27 สิงหาคม เธอเดินทางไปญี่ปุ่นเมื่อวันที่ 28 สิงหาคมและหลังจากสัมผัสที่ Buckner Bay ใน โอกินาวา ก็มาถึงน่านน้ำบ้านของญี่ปุ่นในวันที่ 9 กันยายน ในช่วงสามเดือนต่อมาเธอกวาดเหมืองที่ นางาซากิ , เซโบ , Bungo Suido และ สึ ที่ 11 ธันวาคม 2488 อสุรกาย ได้รับคำสั่งให้กลับบ้าน เธอมาถึงซานดิเอโกในวันที่ 11 มกราคม พ.ศ. 2489 และถูกส่งต่อไปยัง ออเรนจ์เท็กซัส ซึ่งเธอถูกจองจำโดยไม่ได้รับค่าคอมมิชชั่นในปีต่อมา
Spectre ได้รับการกำหนด MSF-306 ใหม่ในวันที่ 7 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2498 ในขณะที่กำลังสำรอง เธอถูกตีจาก ทะเบียนเรือเดินสมุทร เมื่อวันที่ 1 กรกฎาคม พ.ศ. 2515 และขายให้กับเม็กซิโกในวันที่ 11 เมษายน พ.ศ. 2516 ในอาชีพกองทัพเรือสหรัฐ Spectre ได้รับรางวัลสี่ ดาวรบ สำหรับการรับราชการในสงครามโลกครั้งที่สอง
อดีต ผี ถูกซื้อโดย กองทัพเรือเม็กซิกัน ในเดือนเมษายนปี 1973 และเปลี่ยนชื่อเป็น ARM DM-04 ในปี 1994 เธอได้รับการเปลี่ยนชื่อ ARM ทั่วไปมานูเอลอีRincón (C52) หลังจากเม็กซิกันทั่วไป มานูเอลอีRincón เธอถูกครอบงำ 16 กรกฏาคม 2001  แต่ชะตากรรมของเธอจะไม่ได้รายงานใน แหล่งข้อมูลทุติยภูมิ
Submersible POLARSTERN Naval Cover 1988 Paquebot ARKTIS Cachet AUUREYRI, ICELAND
Submersible POLARSTERN Naval Cover 1988 Paquebot ARKTIS Cachet AUUREYRI, ICELAND It was sent 29 May 1988. It was franked with stamp "Germany". It was sent to Clay Leitch of Baltimore. MD. This envelope is in very good, but not perfect condition. Please . Read More
Submersible POLARSTERN Naval Cover 1988 Paquebot ARKTIS Cachet AUUREYRI, ICELAND
It was sent 29 May 1988. It was franked with stamp "Germany". It was sent to Clay Leitch of Baltimore. MD.
This envelope is in very good, but not perfect condition. Please look at the scan and make your own judgement.
Member USCS #10385 (I also earned the stamp collecting merit badge as a boy!). Please contact me if you have specific cover needs. I have thousands for sale, including navals (USS, USNS, USCGC, Coast Guard, ship, Maritime), military posts, event, APO, hotel, postal history, memoribilia, etc. I also offer approvals service with FREE SHIPPING to repeat USA customers.
A submersible is a small vehicle designed to operate underwater. The term submersible is often used to differentiate from other underwater vehicles known as submarines, in that a submarine is a fully autonomous craft, capable of renewing its own power and breathing air, whereas a submersible is usually supported by a surface vessel, platform, shore team or sometimes a larger submarine. In common usage by the general public, however, the word submarine may be used to describe a craft that is by the technical definition actually a submersible. There are many types of submersibles, including both crewed and uncrewed craft, otherwise known as remotely operated vehicles or rovs. submersibles have many uses worldwide, such as oceanography, underwater archaeology, ocean exploration, adventure, equipment maintenance and recovery, and underwater videography.
4 Deep-diving Manned Submersibles
5 Commercial Submersibles
7 See Also
9 External Links
The first underwater vessel was designed and built by american inventor david bushnell in 1775 as a means to attach explosive charges to enemy ships during the american revolutionary war. The device, dubbed bushnell's turtle, was an oval-shaped vessel of wood and brass. It had tanks that were filled with water to make it dive and then emptied with the help of a hand pump to make it return to the surface. The operator used two hand-cranked propellers to move vertically or laterally under the water. The vehicle had small glass windows on top and naturally luminescent wood affixed to its instruments so that they could be read in the dark.
Bushnell's turtle was first set into action on september 7, 1776 at new york harbor to attack the british flagship hms eagle. Sergeant ezra lee operated the vehicle at that time. Lee successfully brought the turtle against the underside of eagle's hull but failed to attach the charge because of the strong water currents.
Apart from size, the main technical difference between a "submersible" and a "submarine" is that submersibles are not fully autonomous and may rely on a support facility or vessel for replenishment of power and breathing gases. Submersibles typically have shorter range, and operate primarily underwater, as most have little function at the surface. some submersibles operate on a "tether" or "umbilical", remaining connected to a tender (a submarine, surface vessel or platform). Submersibles have been able to dive to over 10 km (6 mi) below the surface.
Submersibles may be relatively small, hold only a small crew, and have no living facilities.
A submersible often has very dexterous mobility, provided by propeller screws or pump-jets.
There are five basic technologies used in the design of submersibles. Single atmosphere submersibles (one atmosphere subs) have a pressurized hull and the occupants are at standard atmospheric pressure. This requires the hull to be capable of withstanding the high pressure from the water outside that is many times greater than the internal pressure.
Another technology called ambient pressure maintains the same pressure both inside and outside the vessel. This reduces the pressure that the hull has to withstand.
A third technology is the "wet sub", which refers to a vehicle that may or may not be enclosed, but in either case water floods the interior so scuba equipment is used to facilitate breathing. In both single atmosphere and ambient pressure subs, there is no need to use scuba equipment and occupants can breathe normally without wearing any equipment.
Deep-diving Manned Submersibles[Edit]
Ictineu 3 is a manned submersible with a large semi-spheric acrylic glass viewport capable of reaching depths of 1,200 m (3,900 ft).
Some submersibles have been able to dive to great depths. The bathyscaphe trieste was the first to reach the deepest part of the ocean, nearly 11 km (7 mi) below the surface, at the bottom of the mariana trench in 1960.
China, with its jiaolong project in 2002, was the fifth country to send a man 3,500 meters below sea level, following the us, france, russia and japan. On june 22, 2012, the jiaolong submersible set a deep-diving record when the three-person sub descended 22,844 feet (6,963 meters) into the pacific ocean.
Among the most well-known and longest-in-operation submersibles is the deep-submergence research vessel dsv alvin, which takes 3 people to depths of up to 4,500 metres (14,800 ft). Alvin is owned by the united states navy and operated by whoi, and as of 2011 had made over 4,400 dives.
James cameron made a record-setting, manned submersible dive to the bottom of challenger deep, the deepest known point of the mariana trench on march 26, 2012. Cameron's submersible was named deepsea challenger and reached a depth of 10,908 metres (35,787 ft).
More recently, private firms such as florida based triton submarines, llc. Seamagine hydrospace, sub aviator systems (or 'sas'), and netherlands-based u-boat worx have developed small submersibles for tourism, exploration and adventure travel. A canadian company in british columbia called sportsub has been building personal recreational submersibles since 1986 with open-floor designs (partially flooded cockpits).
Small unmanned submersibles called "marine remotely operated vehicles" or mrovs are widely used today to work in water too deep or too dangerous for divers.
Remotely operated vehicles (rovs) repair offshore oil platforms and attach cables to sunken ships to hoist them. Such remotely operated vehicles are attached by a tether (a thick cable providing power and communications) to a control center on a ship. Operators on the ship see video images sent back from the robot and may control its propellers and manipulator arm. The wreck of the titanic was explored by such a vehicle, as well as by a manned vessel.
Of all AoE Guards, Specter is regarded as one of the best due to the fact that Bone Fracture essentially makes Specter invincible while it lasts. Blaze is superior to Specter in most aspects, especially DPS, but her Emergency Defibrillation has its limitations, making Specter more useful for most situations.
Specter are also available from both headhunting and recruitment (by combining Guard or Melee with AoE and Survival tags), making her relatively easy to get.
Savage (for pre-registered players), Broca, and Estelle are good alternatives to Specter and performs just as well.
Promoting Specter to Elite 2 is a must if the player wants to make use of her due to the significant improvements she received. The player might want to promote Specter to Elite 2 before Blaze, if one also have her.
Spectar AM-306 - History
battle of Harris' Farm, Va., May 19, 1864 battle of North Anna, Va., May 23-27. 1864
battle of Shady Grove, Va., May 30, 1864 battle of Bethesda Church, Va., May 31 and
June 1, 1864 battle of Cold Harbor, Va., June 2-5, 1864 assault on Petersburg, Va.,
June 17-18, 1864 siege of Petersburg, Va., 1864-65 battle of Weldon Railroad, Va.,
August 18-21, 1864 battle of Poplar Springs Church, Va., September 30, 1864 battle of
Chapel House, Va., October 1-3, 1864 battle of Peeble's Farm, Va., October 7, 1864
battle of Hatcher's Run, Va., October 27, 1864 raid to Hicksford, Va., December 7-12,
1864 battle of Dabney's Mill, Va., February 6, 1865 battle of White Oak Road, Va.,
March 31, 1865 battle of Five Forks, Va., April 1, 1865 surrender at Appomattox, Va.,
April 9, 1865.
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Leland H. Rehder
On Wednesday, Nov. 25, 2015, we lost an amazing husband, father, grandfather, brother and friend. Leland H. Rehder passed away with his wife, children and many grandchildren at his side. He was 92.
Lee was born Oct. 14, 1923, to Carl and Mamie (Bergund) Rehder in Cottonwood. He was the oldest of three children.
Lee grew up on the family homestead at the base of Cottonwood Butte. He graduated from Cottonwood High School. He enlisted in the U.S. Navy in 1943 and was discharged in 1946. He served on the USS Specter AM 306 mine sweeper in the South Pacific, including the Philippines and the invasion of Iwo Jima and Okinawa. He was proud of his service and his shipmates.
Lee married Barbara Koepl on June 21, 1949, in Nezperce. They lived on the "home place" and started a dairy, raised beef and hogs, and farmed. He and his sons built a dairy herd to 75 cows until the dairy closed in 2003, when he retired at the age of 80.
Lee was an active community member, serving on boards for St. Gertrude Academy, Prairie Schools, the United Dairyman of Idaho, Northwest Dairyman Association and FHA. He was active in St. Mary's Catholic Church, Knights of Columbus, Veterans of Foreign Wars and the American Legion. Lee had a love of his faith, family, freedom and many friends. He was a well-respected member of his community and beyond. He was a spirited fan of the Seattle Mariners and Gonzaga Bulldogs. He enjoyed daily coffee hour with his friends.
Lee is survived by his wife, Barbara his children, Jim (Sally), Gary (Lynn), Ron (Doris), Rose, Ken (Doreen), Kevin (Kathy) and Joe (Charlene) and sister Mary (Jim) Ewing. He had 32 grandchildren and 40 great-grandchildren.
He was preceded in death by his parents brother Don son-in-law Ed Forsmann and grandchildren Jennifer and Jacob.
A celebration of Lee's life will be held with a rosary at 10 a.m. Monday and funeral at 10:30 a.m. at St. Mary's Church in Cottonwood. Uhlorn Funeral Home is in charge of arrangements.
Lee and Barbara (Koepl) Rehder's 60th wedding anniversary is June 21, 2009. They were married on June 21, 1949, in Nezperce at Holy Trinity Catholic Church. They operated a dairy farm for more than 50 years at the base of Cottonwood Butte. They have seven children: Jim (Sally) Rehder, Gary (Lynn) Rehder, Ron (Doris) Rehder, Rose (Ed) Forsmann, Ken (Doreen) Rehder, Kevin (Kathy) Rehder and Joe (Charlene) Rehder. They have 30 grandchildren and 17 great-grandchildren (with three more on the way).
Lee and Barbara are members of St. Mary's Catholic Church in Cottonwood, where she worked as secretary for 25 years. Lee served in the U.S. Navy in World War II in the Pacific. He served on many different boards including Prairie School board for 15 years.
A picture was taken with 75 family members present and a celebration took place on May 31, the day following their grandson's wedding with a picnic in the park.
COTTONWOOD -- The descendants of Henry and Mary Rehder gathered together in Cottonwood this summer (2008) to celebrate 100 years of the Rehder homestead. Henry and Mary moved to Cottonwood from Missoula, Mont., in 1908. The children of Henry and Mary were Carl (married to Mamie Burgund), Helen (married to Goffe Eckert), Ella (married to Hayward Shields), Theodore and Max.
Carl and Mamie Rehder were represented by the families of Lee and Barb Rehder, Mary Alice and Jim Ewing and Don and Barbara Rehder. Helen and Goffe Eckert were represented by Rod and Renee Eckert and family. Ella and Hayward Shields were represented by Dorothy Romig and family.
The day began with the second annual Father Len Forsmann Memorial Golf Tournament at the Grangeville Country Club. Nine teams played in the tournament. After the golf tourney, the entire Rehder family in attendance gathered at the original homestead barn for a family photo. Family T-shirts designed and printed by Vanessa Rehder were worn by all.
Jim and Sally Rehder hosted a family get-together with great food, entertainment, and most importantly, family memories. More than 100 relatives came to the 100-year celebration from as far away as Bainbridge Island, Seattle, Kennewick, Spokane, Clarkston, Lewiston, Boise and Brazil.
During much of the 20th century, heavy manufacturing industry tended to move out of New England, making the region primarily a receiver of freight traffic rather than an originator. Originating freight or carrying it long distance are far more profitable than final delivery or short haul. New England's railroads have long been handicapped by traffic flow that makes them delivery agents for other railroads and by short distances. Practically the longest one-railroad haul in New England was Boston & Maine's (reporting mark B&M) route from the Hudson River to Portland, Maine, 267 miles (430 km) — less than one-eighth of the distance from Seattle to Chicago on the BNSF Railway. 
A merger consisting of the B&M, the Maine Central Railroad (MEC), and the Delaware & Hudson Railway (D&H), along with one or more other New England railroads, was proposed as long ago as 1929 by the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) as part of its nationwide merger proposal. Frederic C. Dumaine, Jr., president at various times of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad (NH), the Bangor & Aroostook Railroad and D&H, proffered much the same idea. The benefits of such a merger would include economies of scale and longer hauls. 
In 1977, Timothy Mellon, heir of the wealthy and influential Mellon family of Guilford, Connecticut, teamed up with ex-Penn Central employee David Fink to form Perma Treat, a railroad tie treatment company. Mellon wanted to acquire a railroad and considered several: Illinois Central Railroad and the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton Railroad. None of those acquisitions happened, but Mellon's interest in railroads continued.  The passage of the Staggers Rail Act in 1980 allowed Mellon and Fink to execute a business plan (unlike those of earlier railroads in the region), centering on buying up as many local railroads as possible, thus creating full horizontal integration over New England and the northern Mid-Atlantic states, and gaining efficiencies of scale.
In June 1981, Mellon purchased MEC and its wholly owned subsidiary Portland Terminal Company (then owned by U.S. Filter Corporation) through his holding company, Guilford Transportation Industries.   In June 1983, the B&M became the second piece of the Guilford system, bringing with it a subsidiary, the 6.5-mile (10.5 km) Springfield Terminal Railway, a former interurban line connecting Springfield, Vermont to Charlestown, New Hampshire. The Springfield Terminal subsidiary continues to exist and houses most of the operational side of the entire company including train crews and dispatch.  
The formation of Penn Central (PC) in 1968 and its takeover of the NH at year's end had left New England with only one non-PC connection to the rest of the country: B&M's interchange with D&H at Mechanicville, New York. The D&H made a logical extension to the Guilford system — and a necessary one if Guilford was to be more than a terminal company for Conrail traffic moving into New England. D&H was surrounded by Conrail and not doing well. The state of New York, which had financed much of D&H's rehabilitation program, approached Guilford about acquiring the railroad. In October 1981, the Norfolk & Western Railway, which owned D&H through a subsidiary holding company, agreed to sell it to Guilford. The purchase was completed at the beginning of 1984. 
By the time the Guilford system was formed, the one-time multiplicity of connecting railroads had become a single, healthy, well-managed railroad: Conrail. Any New England-bound traffic Conrail originated would move as far as possible on Conrail before being handed over to Guilford (e.g. to Springfield, Massachusetts, rather than Buffalo, New York), and it would move faster. The Guilford remained a short-haul, terminating railroad. 
Guilford's first few years were defined by abandonments, labor unrest and strikes, and a draconian management style that damaged the company's reputation. The railroad struggled financially to turn a profit and implemented cost-cutting measures.  Guilford then began to shrink its system by eliminating marginal low-density routes.
MEC's Mountain Division from Portland, Maine, to St. Johnsbury, Vermont, carried almost no local traffic and served only to give MEC a connection with a railroad other than B&M. With the formation of the Guilford system, it was deemed redundant. B&M was now part of the family, and interchanging traffic with the Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) at Mattawamkeag, Maine, was easier than battling the grades of Crawford Notch in New Hampshire.  A section in New Hampshire was salvaged and reborn as the Conway Scenic Railroad.
Similarly, the only business on MEC's Calais Branch from Bangor to Calais, Maine, was at the extreme eastern end, which could be reached by CP. Service on most of the branch was discontinued, and the line was sold to the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT).  The remaining service in Calais serves a pulp mill in Woodland and is operated by ST MaineDOT leases a 10-mile (16 km) segment between Brewer and Ellsworth to the Downeast Scenic Railroad.  The remaining 85-mile (137 km) Ellsworth-Calais segment was leased to the Downeast Sunrise Trail, an interim rail trail. 
MEC's Rockland Branch from Brunswick, to Rockland, Maine, was also on the chopping block, as was part of the Lower Road, the Portland-Waterville route via Augusta, Maine.  This branch would later be sold to MaineDOT, and operated on its behalf by the Maine Eastern Railroad until the end of 2015, when operations were transferred to the Central Maine and Quebec Railway (CMQ). The operation of this branch would soon be transferred to CP, upon that rail system's acquisition of CMQ. 
Labor disputes and mismanagement Edit
Guilford announced layoffs, shop closings, and pay cuts. MEC's maintenance workers went on strike in March 1986, and the strike spread to B&M and D&H. To take advantage of a lower wage scale and more flexible work rules that apply to shortline railroads, Guilford began leasing portions of the MEC and B&M to B&M subsidiary Springfield Terminal (ST) for operation. This saved money for Guilford, but angered labor, resulting in another, more lengthy strike in 1987.  In 1988 an arbitrator on behalf of the ICC ruled that Guilford could not lease the D&H to ST and had to abide by pre-ST labor agreements.  The ruling precipitated the D&H into bankruptcy. Guilford withdrew from D&H and informed the federal government that they were going to cease operations. The New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway was ordered by the federal government to operate the railroad under subsidy until a buyer could be found.  Even though the NY&SW placed a bid of their own for the railroad, in 1991 the D&H was sold to CP Rail, where it grew into a more prosperous railroad than it had been during Guilford's tenure.  The Philadelphia Inquirer later commented that Guilford had "become the bane of organized labor for a harsh, confrontational approach to trimming costs."  Most railroad executives dismissed Mellon as a wealthy heir who suffered from gross mismanagement, possessed a willful misunderstanding of the inner workings of a railroad, and was a "stubborn ideologue". 
Amtrak conflicts Edit
Guilford proved to be an unwilling participant in assisting Amtrak on several occasions, forcing the U.S. federal government to get involved. The company had two north–south routes to Canada, the D&H line north from Albany and B&M's Connecticut River Line. The D&H line was in better condition, so Guilford downgraded the B&M route, reducing maintenance. Complications arose. B&M and the Central Vermont Railway (CV) each owned a portion of the route. South of Brattleboro and north of Windsor, Vermont, CV maintained its track so that good speeds were possible, but between those two points was a 50-mile (80 km) stretch of B&M track, much of it limited to 10 mph (16 km/h). Amtrak, whose Montrealer used the route, found the slow running intolerable.  The train was suspended in 1987, and the ICC ordered B&M to sell the Windsor-Brattleboro segment to Amtrak, which immediately resold it to CV, who rehabilitated the track.  The Montrealer was restored in 1989 on a new route: CV all the way from New London, Connecticut, to Cantic, Quebec, bypassing B&M entirely. 
Service on Amtrak's new Downeaster line between Boston and Portland was delayed when negotiations between Guilford and the national passenger carrier slowed due to the former's issues with equipment weight and speed limits. In December 1998, a speed limit of 79 miles per hour (127 km/h) was agreed upon between both parties, with the Surface Transportation Board (STB) approving it in 1999. Guilford then refused to assist Amtrak with any track improvements, forcing the STB to deal with Guilford on Amtrak's behalf. Track upgrades were eventually made in 2000, but the proposed 2001 start-up was further delayed when Guilford refused to allow Amtrak speeds in excess of 59 miles per hour (95 km/h) (despite STB approval of 79 mph), as well as prohibiting Amtrak from operating test trains. Again the STB informed Guilford that they were in violation of their agreements signed with Amtrak. Downeaster service finally began on December 14, 2001. 
Expansion attempt Edit
In 1985, Guilford entered into an agreement with Norfolk Southern Railway (NS) to run trains to St. Louis. NS was attempting to win approval of a plan to purchase Conrail from the U.S. government and proposed allowing Guilford to lease Conrail lines to St. Louis in order to restore competition that would be lost in the merger. The plan would have allowed Guilford to use the Conrail mainline from Toledo to Ridgeway, Ohio, and from Crestline, Ohio, to St. Louis. Guilford would also purchase 955 miles (1,537 km) of Conrail track and 1,300 freight cars from Norfolk Southern for $53M.  NS did not prevail in its attempt to purchase Conrail in 1985, and the Guilford plan was dropped. In 1987, Guilford also placed a bid to buy Southern Pacific. 
The paper industry provides the largest source of business, with chemicals, clay and pulp inbound, and finished paper outbound. But the railroad has been losing ground to other forms of transportation - particularly trucking. A 2008 report issued by the American Society of Civil Engineers rated Maine at 48th of the 50 states in volume of freight traffic that moves by rail.  The Maine Motor Transport Association web page reports that trucks transport 94% of total manufactured tonnage in Maine. 
Despite the general growth in freight transport throughout the US, Guilford's growth remained stagnant after an initial increase in the 1990s. After the creation of Pan Am Railways, traffic dropped considerably. A report issued by MaineDOT listed traffic on MEC as being 162,658 loads in 1972.  As of 2008, Pan Am traffic over the remaining portions of MEC was estimated to be less than 69,000 loads.  During the same time span, the Association of American Railroads estimates that freight traffic throughout the US more than doubled.  [ failed verification ]
In 1998, Guilford bought the name, colors and logo of Pan American World Airways. In March 2006, Guilford Transportation Industries changed its name to Pan Am Systems, and Guilford Rail System was rebranded as Pan Am Railways (PAR). Then in March 2009, PAR was ordered to pay the largest corporate criminal fine in Massachusetts history — $500,000 — due to the company's negligence to report a spill of hundreds of gallons of diesel fuel in violation of state and federal environmental laws and regulations. 
As of 2011, PAR employs 750 people and has a $40 million payroll.  The company continues to operate with subsidiary entities bearing the names of former railroads which over time formed the present day company. The company's assets are housed separately in these various subsidiaries for various reasons. For example, the Boston and Maine Corporation owns the railroad property itself while the Springfield Terminal branch operates the railroad (most of the company's employees are under the Springfield Terminal umbrella.) Meanwhile, the Maine Central entity owns rolling stock.
Norfolk Southern Edit
On May 15, 2008, NS announced that it had come to an agreement with PAR to "create an improved rail route between Albany, New York, and the Boston, Massachusetts, region, named the Patriot Corridor.    The STB approved the deal on March 10, 2009,  with each railroad owning 50% of a new company known as Pan Am Southern (PAS). PAR's trackage between Ayer, Massachusetts, and Mechanicville, New York, was transferred to PAS and continues to be operated and maintained by PAR's ST subsidiary. NS transferred to PAS cash and property valued at $140 million.
Improvements to the route include track and signal upgrades, and expansion of terminals, including construction of new automotive and intermodal terminals in Ayer and Mechanicville.  In March 2012, the Federal Railroad Administration awarded a $2-million grant to the Massachusetts Department of Transportation for preliminary engineering on removing 19 obstacles to allow double stack container trains to use the Patriot Corridor route. The project includes raising clearance by two feet in the 4.75-mile (7.64 km) Hoosac Tunnel. 
Disputes with local governments Edit
The company has been criticized for dumping used railroad ties that contain creosote rather than sending them for safe disposal or recycling. 
CSX acquisition Edit
Pan Am was put up for sale in July 2020.  On November 30, 2020, CSX announced that it had signed a definitive agreement to purchase Pan Am Railways, Inc. The sale of Pan Am to CSX is subject to regulatory review and approval of the Surface Transportation Board.  
PAR's main line runs from Mattawamkeag, Maine, to Mechanicville, New York, via the lines of the following former companies:
- MEC:European and North American Railway, MEC main line
- B&M: B&M main line, Lowell and Andover Railroad
- Boston & Lowell Railroad: Nashua & Lowell Railroad, Stony Brook Railroad
- Fitchburg Railroad: Fitchburg Railroad main line, Vermont & Massachusetts Railroad, Troy and Greenfield Railroad, Southern Vermont Railroad, Troy & Boston Railroad, Boston, Hoosac Tunnel & Western Railway
Heritage locomotives Edit
In August 2011, PAR repainted an EMD GP9 locomotive (ST #77) into the maroon and gold "Minuteman" paint scheme used on B&M locomotives in the 1950s.  In December 2011, ST GP9 #52 was repainted using MEC's 1950s-era "Pine Tree Route" green and gold livery.  Both were sold to the Heber Valley Railroad and departed Pan Am property in September 2018.
Specter ghost, or something that haunts the mind
- Olive: The olive tree. It is speculated that it is a pun on "o-live" in 'alive specter (ghost)'.
- Ichabod (Olive's third husband): Hebrew for 'without honor'. Could refer to the character Ichabod of Sleepy Hollow.
- Planchette (An unlinked descendant of the Spector/Specter family): A planchette is the name of a piece of wood designed to hold a pencil, used in séances to communicate with the spirits of the dead.
Rigger Mortis (Olive's first husband): 'Rigger' means to rig or dresses, while 'Mortis' refers to the French word 'mort', which means death. Rigor Mortis is a state in which a corpse's limbs become stiff and difficult to move.
Hugh Thanasia (Olive's second husband): From the word 'Euthanasia', means literally "good death" in Ancient Greek. Refers to the practice of ending a life in a painless manner.
Lou Thanasia (Hugh's brother): A shortening of the given name Louis. Louis means "Famed Warrior." Sounds similar to Hugh Thanasia, so could also mean "good death."
Earl E. DeMise (Olive's fiancé): Means "Early Demise", early death.
Tim Lee DeMise (Earl's brother): Perhaps could refer to "Timely Demise" - "timely death."
Nigmos -- Possibly taken from "enigma" - a mysterious occurrence, also means "a confusing character or person", which could possibly refer to Olive herself.
- Ophelia (Olive's niece): In Ancient Greek, it means "help." May also refer to the Shakespeare character Ophelia from "Hamlet," who went mad and drowned herself.
- Willow (Ophelia's mother, Olive's sister): Refers to the Willow Tree. May also refer to willow as a word meaning erode as "willowing away"
- Creon (Ophelia's father): In Greek, means 'ruler'. Also is in Oedipus Rex a character named Creon. Many of his relatives died: his grandnephews in duel his brother-in-law was murdered by Oedipus his son, daughter-in-law and sister by suicide and he himself is murdered by Lycus.
- Hecate (Ophelia's paternal grandmother): Greek for far-shooting. Refers to the goddess of darkness, spirits, witchcraft, and the crossroads.
- Zog (Ophelia's paternal grandfather): In Dutch, zog comes from "kielzog" which means wake, the white turbulent water behind a boat.
Muenda -- Could refer to Munda, which is a place in the Solomon Islands. Muenda is also a traditional African name meaning "one who cares for others" in the Meru language.
Authorize Weapons Sales [ edit | edit source ]
C-Sec has noticed that weapons dealers are breaking regulations by selling weapons to civilians without the proper permits. The dealers have argued that they are giving civilians the ability to protect themselves, and many C-Sec officials privately sympathize. Spectre authorization will give C-Sec officers leeway to turn a blind eye to sales that they deem harmless. This could improve morale around the Citadel in the wake of the Cerberus attack.
After supporting the Angry Merchant at Aegohr Munitions.
Spectar AM-306 - History
This Pioneer Crystal Rocket Radio model MG-306 was manufactured by Miniman Radio Co. Ltd in Japan circa 1960.
Miniman Radio Co. Ltd took advantage of the space craze sweeping the world during the 1960’s and made lots of novelty crystal radios shaped like rockets! You can see many of their designs featured in author Eric Wrobbel's fine booklets.
This Miniman Rocket Radio uses a germanium diode to convert radio waves into sound. Germanium is a brittle gray crystalline element that when purified can be used as a semiconductor.
To listen, simply attach the alligator clip to a suitable antenna a bedspring or large metal object etc and insert the earplug into your ear. This radio does not use a separate ground connection, it uses the listeners body as the ‘ground’. It features a tuning knob that raises and lowers the numbered yellow tip.
With its fun ‘jet age’ design this Rocket Radio would have appealed to the parents of young children and many would have been given as gifts.
It measures just 168mm x 38mm.
Often these crystal radios from the 1950’s and 1960’s are ruined by melt marks. Unfortunately many owners stored their rocket radios with the attached wires wrapped around the plastic body. O ver time the vinyl insulation covering the wires reacts with the plastic body of the radio and inflicts nasty melt marks on it.
It is a good idea to wrap the wires in plastic when in storage.
This rocket radio comes with a gift box, instructions, and the original plastic storage bag with groovy yellow graphics! The gift box also features some great retro space age graphics!
I have seen a similar rocket radio that the advertiser tried to pass off as a transistor radio. To see that advertisement and others click here.
The plastic storage bag.
The alligator clip and earphone.
'Japan' and the model number 'MG-306' are printed on the bottom of the radio .